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Knot Physics

Spacetime is assumed to be a branched 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The branches allow quantum interference; each individual branch is a history in the sum-over-histories. A n-manifold embedded in a n+2-space can be knotted. The metric on the spacetime manifold is inherited from the Minkowski space and only allows a particular variety of knots. We show how those knots correspond to the observed particles with corresponding properties. We derive a Lagrangian. The Lagrangian combined with the geometry of the manifold produces gravity, electromagnetism, weak force, and strong force.

Short presentation video (9 minutes)
Short presentation pdf

The youtube channel

Full presentation pdf


Knot physics: Spacetime in co-dimension 2
First version 2004.

Knot physics: Neutrino helicity
(Neutrino helicity separated as new paper. 11/3/2011)

Knot physics: Deriving the fine structure constant
(First version. 4/14/2013)

Mathematica notebooks:

(First version. 4/14/2013)

fine_structure_function verification
(First version. 4/2/2014)