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Knot Physics

Spacetime is assumed to be a branched 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The branches allow quantum interference; each individual branch is a history in the sum-over-histories. A n-manifold embedded in a n+2-space can be knotted. The metric on the spacetime manifold is inherited from the Minkowski space and only allows a particular variety of knots. We show how those knots correspond to the observed particles with corresponding properties. We derive a Lagrangian. The Lagrangian combined with the geometry of the manifold produces gravity, electromagnetism, weak force, and strong force.


Frequently asked questions page


Knot physics: Spacetime in co-dimension 2
First version 2004.

Knot physics: Neutrino helicity
(Neutrino helicity separated as new paper. 11/3/2011)

Knot physics: Deriving the fine structure constant
(First version. 4/14/2013)

Mathematica notebooks:

(First version. 4/14/2013)

fine_structure_function verification
(First version. 4/2/2014)