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Knot Physics

Spacetime is assumed to be a branched 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The branches allow quantum interference; each individual branch is a history in the sum-over-histories. A n-manifold embedded in a n+2-space can be knotted. The metric on the spacetime manifold is inherited from the Minkowski space and only allows a particular variety of knots. We show how those knots correspond to the observed particles with corresponding properties. We derive a Lagrangian. The Lagrangian combined with the geometry of the manifold produces gravity, electromagnetism, weak force, and strong force.

Introduction to knot physics

Introduction to quantum in knot physics

Conference presentation

Frequently asked questions page


Knot physics: Spacetime in co-dimension 2
First version 2004. Recent changes:
(Corrections in QFT and Ricci flatness. 1/15/2013)
(Minor changes for clarity. 4/14/2013)
(Section IX D Gravity changed for clarity. 4/16/2013)
(Minor changes. 4/3/2014)

Knot physics: Neutrino helicity
(Neutrino helicity separated as new paper. 11/3/2011)
(Minor changes for clarity. 4/14/2013)
(Minor changes. 4/3/2014)

Knot physics: Deriving the fine structure constant
(First version. 4/14/2013)
(Significant changes and revisions. 4/3/2014)

Mathematica notebooks:

(First version. 4/14/2013)
(Expanded function verification. 4/25/2013)
(Significant changes and revisions. Function verification separated. 4/2/2014)

fine_structure_function verification
(First version. 4/2/2014)